Diabetes results when the pancreas cannot respond to or produce insulin, leading to abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and elevated levels of glucose in the blood and urine. Type 2 diabetes (previously “noninsulin-dependent diabetes” or “adult-onset diabetes”) accounts for 90–95% of all diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a progressive loss of β-cell insulin secretion, usually associated with insulin resistance. Prediabetes is diagnosed when glucose levels start to rise due to β-cell insulin secretion failure, but diagnostic criteria are not yet met for Type 2 diabetes.
Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes (NIDDK)
Who and When to Screen
Prediabetes is not a clinical disorder but rather an important risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While there are some differences between organizations regarding risk factors for screening and diagnostic cut-offs, all agree as to the importance of identifying those at risk for significant cardiovascular events if diabetes is left untreated. The prognosis for type 2 diabetes varies and is very dependent on glucose control.
ADA: Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2022
AACE/ACE Clinical Practice Guidelines for Developing a Diabetes Mellitus Comprehensive Care Plan
Consensus Statement By The American Association Of Clinical Endocrinologists And American College Of Endocrinology On The Comprehensive Type 2 Diabetes Management Algorithm – 2020 Executive Summary
NIDDK: Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes
USPSTF: Screening for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes
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