Prophylactic Mastectomy and BRCA – Risk Reduction and Guidelines
Learning Objectives and CME/Disclosure Information
This activity is intended for healthcare providers delivering care to women and their families.
After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:
1. State the cumulative risks for breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers by the age of 80 2. Discuss the role of prophylactic mastectomy in reducing breast cancer risk in women who are BRCA carriers
Estimated time to complete activity: 0.25 hours
Susan J. Gross, MD, FRCSC, FACOG, FACMG
President and CEO, The ObG Project
Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) requires faculty, planners, and others in control of educational content to disclose all their financial relationships with ineligible companies. All identified conflicts of interest (COI) are thoroughly vetted and mitigated according to PIM policy. PIM is committed to providing its learners with high quality accredited continuing education activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of an ineligible company.
The PIM planners and others have nothing to disclose. The OBG Project planners and others have nothing to disclose.
Faculty: Susan J. Gross, MD, receives consulting fees from Cradle Genomics, and has financial interest in The ObG Project, Inc.
Planners and Managers: The PIM planners and managers, Trace Hutchison, PharmD, Samantha Mattiucci, PharmD, CHCP, Judi Smelker-Mitchek, MBA, MSN, RN, and Jan Schultz, MSN, RN, CHCP have nothing to disclose.
Method of Participation and Request for Credit
Fees for participating and receiving CME credit for this activity are as posted on The ObG Project website. During the period from 1/31/2017 through 1/25/2023, participants must read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures and study the educational activity.
If you wish to receive acknowledgment for completing this activity, please complete the test and evaluation. Upon registering and successfully completing the test with a score of 100% and the activity evaluation, your certificate will be made available immediately.
For Pharmacists: Upon successfully completing the test with a score of 100% and the activity evaluation form, transcript information will be sent to the NABP CPE Monitor Service within 4 weeks.
Joint Accreditation Statement
In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by the Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and The ObG Project. Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.
Physician Continuing Medical Education
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Continuing Nursing Education
The maximum number of hours awarded for this Continuing Nursing Education activity is 0.2 contact hours.
A recent large prospective cohort study (see ‘Related ObG Project’ below) demonstrated that by age 80, the cumulative breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers is 72% (95% CI, 65%-79%) and 69% (95% CI, 61%-77%) for BRCA2. In the context of women with high risk for breast cancer, consider the following:
Bilateral risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) is an option for women at high risk for breast cancer
High-risk includes carriers of deleterious mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other genes associated with high risk of breast cancer such as TP53, PTEN, CH1 or STK11
Prior to surgery, obtain the following
Multidisciplinary consultations with genetic counseling, surgical reconstructive and oncology teams
Clinical breast exam
Bilateral mammogram if not performed within past 6 months
If no findings on clinical examination or imaging
Women may choose to undergo RRM with or without immediate reconstruction
Remove all breast tissue (total mastectomy)
Axillary node assessment has limited utility at the time of RRM and only required if cancer identified on pathology
If patient at risk for occult primary cancer (abnormal imaging or positive family history without MRI imaging available)
Sentinel note biopsy may be performed for axillary staging
There are other management options aside from RRM for women who are at high risk for breast cancer due to pathogenic variants in BRCA and related genes. Chemoprevention using risk reducing medications such as tamoxifen and raloxifene may be appropriate. Selection of these agents depends on age, race, breast cancer risk and history of hysterectomy. Aromatase inhibitors have also been investigated for use as risk reducing agents. However, these medications are more effective at preventing ER+ disease which is more highly associated with BRCA2 compared to BRCA1. Surveillance programs using imaging studies are also available. Monitoring with MRI is not a preventative strategy but rather an approach that can be used for early detection.
RRM may not reduce the risk of all-cause mortality but can reduce the risk of breast cancer in BRCA carriers by 85 to 100%
NCCN and ACOG recommend that RRM be offered to women who are BRCA mutation carriers to reduce the risk of breast cancer
Shared decision making should include general health and life expectancy
Women at High Risk but Not BRCA Mutation Carriers
According to the National Cancer Institute, other women at high risk for breast cancer, aside from BRCA mutation carriers, who might consider risk reducing mastectomy include (see ‘Primary Sources – Learn More’ below)
Those with a strong family history of breast cancer (such as having a mother, sister, and/or daughter who was diagnosed with bilateral breast cancer or with breast cancer before age 50 years or having multiple family members with breast or ovarian cancer)
Those with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) plus a family history of breast cancer
Those who have had radiation therapy to the chest (including the breasts) before the age of 30 years
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Disclosure of Unlabeled Use
This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.
The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.
Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information
presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.
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