Does Coffee Consumption Cause Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Such as Miscarriage?
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Brito Nunes et al. (International Journal of Epidemiology, 2022) investigated whether there is a causal relationship between coffee consumption and miscarriage, stillbirth, birthweight, gestational age and pre-term birth
Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study
Data derived from
Coffee and Caffeine Genetics Consortium
Early Growth Genetics consortium
UK Biobank meta-analysis (maternal-specific genetic effects on offspring birthweight)
Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children
Genetic variants identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of coffee consumption
MR uses genetic variants associated with an exposure of interest as a proxy for that exposure and can determine causal links when randomized controlled trials are not possible
Summary result statistics were obtained from genome wide association studies (GWASs) for outcomes of interest
An addition one-sample genetic risk score (GRS) analysis was performed to assess the relationship between coffee consumption and offspring outcomes
Covariates: Maternal age at the last menstrual period | Maternal smoking | Alcohol intake during pregnancy | Child’s sex
Study has 80% power (alpha = 0.05) to detect an effect of maternal coffee consumption representing a 26.9-gram difference in birthweight per cup of coffee per day or 0.03 more stillbirths per cup of coffee per day
The causal relationship of maternal coffee consumption (via associated genetic variants) on sporadic miscarriages, stillbirths, gestational age, pre-term birth and offspring birthweight
Both the two-sample MR and one-sample GRS analyses showed that coffee consumption had no effect on the risk of
Sporadic miscarriages (P=0.296)
Preterm birth (P=0.760)
Gestational age (P=0.861)
Both analyses showed an association between increased coffee consumption and higher birthweight
However, the magnitude of this association was inconsistent
This study did not find a causal effect of coffee consumption during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes
A limitation of the study may include lack of power to detect smaller magnitude causal effects
The authors state
Our results suggest previously reported observational associations may be driven by confounding factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy
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