Meta-analysis: Does Poor Maternal Diet Increase Risk for Respiratory Problems in Childhood?
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Evidence is conflicting evidence whether suboptimal diet during pregnancy is associated with poor respiratory outcomes in children
Mensink-Bout et al. (European Respiratory Journal, 2022) examined whether a pro-inflammatory or low-quality maternal diet during pregnancy was associated with child’s respiratory health
Individual participant datameta-analysis
Mother–child pairs from seven European birth cohorts
Maternal pro-inflammatory and low-quality diets
Maternal pro-inflammatory and low-quality diets were estimated by energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores
Main pro-inflammatory components: Trans fat | Saturated fat | Cholesterol
Main anti-inflammatory components: Nutrients derived from fruits and vegetables and n-3 fatty acids
Preschool wheezing: Ever reported wheezing during the first 4 years of life
School-age asthma: Asthma diagnosis reported between 5 and 10 years
Adjustments for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors
Outcomes were measured using questionnaires and spirometry
18 ,326 mother–child pairs
More pro-inflammatory diets during pregnancy (higher maternal E-DII score) were associated only with a lower forced vital capacity (FVC) in children
z-score difference −0.05 (95% CI, −0.08– −0.02) per interquartile range increase
There were no associations between maternal E-DII or DASH score with
In an exploratory examination of the extremes, a very low DASH score (<10th percentile; a very low dietary quality) was associated with
Increased risk of preschool wheezing
Low forced expiratory volume over 1 second (FEV1)
Outcome effects were not altered following adjustment for early growth factors, lower respiratory tract infections nor child’s BMI
Low-quality diets during pregnancy, including those that are pro-inflammatory, were not associated with poor respiratory outcomes in childhood
The authors state
The main results from this individual participant data meta-analysis do not support the hypothesis that maternal pro-inflammatory or low-quality diet in pregnancy are related to respiratory diseases in childhood
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