Real World Data: COVID-19 Vaccination and Reduction in Risk for Reinfection
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:
Using real-world data, Cavanaugh et al. (CDCMMWR, 2021) assessed the association between vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 reinfection among persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2
Residents of Kentucky
Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and December of 2020
Case patients: SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 and another positive test between May and June 2021
Control patients: SARS-CoV-2 infection in 2020 and no reinfection
Fully vaccinated: first dose of J&J or second dose of Pfizer/Moderna was received ≥14 days before the reinfection date
Partially vaccinated: ≥1 dose of vaccine, but either the vaccination series was not completed or the final dose was received <14 days before the case-patient’s reinfection date
Matching of cases and controls
Based on age, sex, and date of initial infection
Case-patients: 246 | Control patients: 492
60.6% female, 82.9% of case patients initially infected October to December 2020
Case-patients full vaccinated: 20.3%
Control-patients fully vaccinated: 34.3%
Compared to patients with previous infections who were fully vaccinated, those with previous infections who were unvaccinated were 2.34 times more likely to experience reinfection
OR 2.34 (95% CI, 1.58 to 3.47)
Partial vaccination was not significantly associated with reinfection
OR 1.56 (95% CI, 0.81 to 3.01)
In the real world, individuals with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection that were unvaccinated were 2.34 times more likely to experience reinfection that those who were vaccinated
Lack of a significant association with partial vs full vaccination should be interpreted with caution | Statistical power limited due to small ‘n’ of individuals who were partially vaccinated
To reduce the risk of reinfection, everyone that is eligible for a COVID-19 vaccine should be offered one, even if they have previously been infected
The authors state
The findings from this study suggest that among previously infected persons, full vaccination is associated with reduced likelihood of reinfection, and, conversely, being unvaccinated is associated with higher likelihood of being reinfected
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presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.
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