Learning Objectives and CME/Disclosure Information
This activity is intended for healthcare providers delivering care to women and their families.
After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:
1. Describe the architecture of a chromosome 2. Define aneuploidy and euploidy
Estimated time to complete activity: 0.25 hours
Susan J. Gross, MD, FRCSC, FACOG, FACMG President and CEO, The ObG Project
Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) requires faculty, planners, and others in control of educational content to disclose all their financial relationships with ineligible companies. All identified conflicts of interest (COI) are thoroughly vetted and mitigated according to PIM policy. PIM is committed to providing its learners with high quality accredited continuing education activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of an ineligible company.
The PIM planners and others have nothing to disclose. The OBG Project planners and others have nothing to disclose.
Faculty: Susan J. Gross, MD, receives consulting fees from Cradle Genomics, and has financial interest in The ObG Project, Inc.
Planners and Managers: The PIM planners and managers, Trace Hutchison, PharmD, Samantha Mattiucci, PharmD, CHCP, Judi Smelker-Mitchek, MBA, MSN, RN, and Jan Schultz, MSN, RN, CHCP have nothing to disclose.
Method of Participation and Request for Credit
Fees for participating and receiving CME credit for this activity are as posted on The ObG Project website. During the period from Dec 31 2017 through Dec 31 2019, participants must read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures and study the educational activity.
If you wish to receive acknowledgment for completing this activity, please complete the post-test and evaluation. Upon registering and successfully completing the post-test with a score of 100% and the activity evaluation, your certificate will be made available immediately.
For Pharmacists: Upon successfully completing the post-test with a score of 100% and the activity evaluation form, transcript information will be sent to the NABP CPE Monitor Service within 4 weeks.
Joint Accreditation Statement
In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by the Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and The ObG Project. Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.
Physician Continuing Medical Education
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Continuing Nursing Education
The maximum number of hours awarded for this Continuing Nursing Education activity is 0.2 contact hours.
A chromosome is the structure for the efficient packaging of DNA that is found in the cellular nucleus. Humans have 23 chromosome pairs, typically one maternal and one paternal of each. The chromosome number will vary in some cases of viable aneuploidies.
Each chromosome has 2 “arms”
Short arm (petit), notated “p”
Long arm, notated “q”
Chromosomes are numbered, 1 through 23
1 through 22 are autosomes, and is not related to whether one is female or male
Sex chromosomes are notated X and Y
Female Chromosome complement: 46,XX
Male Chromosome complement: 46,XY
This illustration depicts DNA packed tightly into chromosomes, as well as a DNA molecule unwound to reveal its 3-D structure | credit: NHGRI https://www.genome.gov
When the chromosomal complement is BALANCED (any multiple of 23), it is EUPLOID
‘Balanced’ does not necessarily mean a normal chromosome complement | 69, XXY is euploid, but is considered to be a chromosomal abnormality
When the chromosomal number is NOT BALANCED, it is ANEUPLOID
Common chromosomal trisomies and monosomies are examples of aneuploidy
Besides additional whole or missing chromosomes, chromosomes can have other structural changes, such as deletions (del), duplications (dup), insertions (ins), inversions (inv), many of which are associated with recognizable genetic syndromes, for example:
22q11.2 deletion syndrome
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS): results from deletion of a portion of chromosome 4p
Not all structural changes have significance
inv(9)(p11q12) and inv(9)(p11q13): common inversions involving chromosome 9 with no clinical sequelae
Chromosomal analysis requires only a single cell, at minimum, and can be performed on tissue/tumor, blood or amniotic fluid samples
Chromosomal analysis has an important role in prenatal diagnosis, clinical diagnosis in individuals with multiple congenital anomalies and other complex clinical pictures
Karyotype is a pictorial arrangement of chromosomes, that allows for careful analysis of gross numerical or structural changes
Chromosomal microarrays are being increasingly utilized as a method to analyze chromosomes as they offer the ability to detect submicroscopic abnormalities that may go undetected with conventional karyotyping (see ‘Related ObG Topics’ below)
OBG Project CME requires a modern web browser (Internet Explorer 10+, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge). Certain educational activities may require additional software to view multimedia, presentation, or printable versions of their content. These activities will be marked as such and will provide links to the required software. That software may be: Adobe Flash, Apple QuickTime, Adobe Acrobat, Microsoft PowerPoint, Windows Media Player, or Real Networks Real One Player.
Disclosure of Unlabeled Use
This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.
The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.
Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information
presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.
Jointly provided by
NOT ENOUGH CME HOURS
It appears you don't have enough CME Hours to take this Post-Test. Feel free to buy additional CME hours or upgrade your current CME subscription plan