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Vitamin D Levels: Is There an Association with Livebirth and/or Miscarriage


  • Research suggests that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vitamin D) levels play a role in reproduction
    • Receptors found in important tissues required for normal reproduction
    • Vitamin D may be associated with the immune system
  • Data on this topic limited in humans and generally to IVF/fertility centers
  • Mumford et al. (The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2018) examined the association between preconception vitamin D and livebirth/miscarriage among women without fertility issues


  • Secondary analysis of prospective cohort from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (RCT)
    • Data from Effects of Aspirin in Gestation and Reproduction (EAGeR) trial
    • Initial trial assessed effects of aspirin on pregnancy loss
  • Participants
    • 18-40 years of age
    • 1 or 2 previous pregnancy losses
  • Vitamin D was measured at
    • Baseline (preconception)
    • 8 weeks of gestation
  • Vitamin D level cut-offs
    • Sufficient concentrations: ≥75 nmol/L
    • Insufficient concentrations: <75 nmol/L
  • Primary outcomes
    • Clinical pregnancy
    • Time to pregnancy (Fecundability)
    • Pregnancy loss
    • Livebirths


  • 1,191 women were included in the study with data available on preconception 25- hydroxyvitamin D concentrations
    • 47% sufficient
    • 53% insufficient
  • When compared to women with insufficient Vitamin D, women with sufficient preconception Vitamin D were more likely to achieve
    • Clinical pregnancy: adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01–1.20
    • Livebirth: aRR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02–1.29
  • Among women who achieved pregnancy, sufficient Vitamin D was associated with reduced risk of pregnancy loss at preconception but not at 8 weeks gestation
    • Preconception: RR per 25 nmol/L 0.88; 95% CI, 0.77–0.99
    • 8 weeks: RR per 25 nmol/L 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95–1.01
  • There was no association between fecundability with sufficient versus those with insufficient preconception VitD levels


  • Sufficient levels of Vitamin D before conception (but not in early pregnancy) are associated with increased likelihood of pregnancy and livebirth
  • Vitamin D levels did not affect time to pregnancy, in keeping with previous research

Learn More – Primary Sources:

Association of preconception serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with livebirth and pregnancy loss: a prospective cohort study