Upright versus lying down position in second stage of labour in nulliparous women with low dose epidural: BUMPES randomized controlled trial
Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Fetal Growth
When considering the effects of ionizing radiation during pregnancy:
X-ray procedures may be indicated during pregnancy or may occur inadvertently before the pregnancy is diagnosed. The risk to a fetus from ionizing radiation is dependent on the gestational age at the time of the exposure and the dose of radiation. Growth restriction, microcephaly and intellectual disability are the most common adverse effects from high dose radiation exposure. They have not been reported with radiation exposure less than 50 mGy. Actual fetal doses are dependent on gestational age, maternal body habitus and acquisition parameters.
ACOG Committee Opinion 723: Guidelines for Diagnostic Imaging During Pregnancy and Lactation
JAMA: Association Between MRI Exposure During Pregnancy and Fetal and Childhood Outcomes
HPS: Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure – Patient FAQs
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