Subgroup analysis by sex did not demonstrate a significant difference between men and women
Major strength of this study was sample size and prospective, long-term follow-up
The study was powered for overall cancer risk
Numbers of different types of cancers were small and the study was not powered for many individual cancers
The total cancer risk may be driven by accumulation of small effects over multiple different cancer types/sites
Higher vitamin D concentrations were associated with lower risk of total cancer, including liver cancer
The results from this study suggest that “raising a low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration to an intermediate concentration may provide protection, whereas raising it to a higher concentration (probably above around 80 nmol/L) may provide no further benefit”
Further randomized trials would be required to confirm the conclusions of this study and whether there is a threshold above which there is no demonstrable benefit to increasing vitamin D levels
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