Can Maternal Pulse Pressure be Used to Determine the Need for Fluid Bolus Prior to Epidural?
Learning Objectives and CME/Disclosure Information
This activity is intended for healthcare providers delivering care to women and their families.
After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:
1. Discuss the study design that was used to test the hypothesis if narrow pulse pressure can be used to determine fluid bolus amount prior to epidural anesthesia 2. List the benefits of using a larger fluid bolus in pregnant women with a narrow pulse pressure on admission to labor floor
Estimated time to complete activity: 0.25 hours
Susan J. Gross, MD, FRCSC, FACOG, FACMG
President and CEO, The ObG Project
Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) requires faculty, planners, and others in control of educational content to disclose all their financial relationships with ineligible companies. All identified conflicts of interest (COI) are thoroughly vetted and mitigated according to PIM policy. PIM is committed to providing its learners with high quality accredited continuing education activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of an ineligible company.
The PIM planners and others have nothing to disclose. The OBG Project planners and others have nothing to disclose.
Faculty: Susan J. Gross, MD, receives consulting fees from Cradle Genomics, and has financial interest in The ObG Project, Inc.
Planners and Managers: The PIM planners and managers, Trace Hutchison, PharmD, Samantha Mattiucci, PharmD, CHCP, Judi Smelker-Mitchek, MBA, MSN, RN, and Jan Schultz, MSN, RN, CHCP have nothing to disclose.
Method of Participation and Request for Credit
Fees for participating and receiving CME credit for this activity are as posted on The ObG Project website. During the period from March 4 2018 through 07/15/2022, participants must read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures and study the educational activity.
If you wish to receive acknowledgment for completing this activity, please complete the post-test and evaluation. Upon registering and successfully completing the post-test with a score of 100% and the activity evaluation, your certificate will be made available immediately.
For Pharmacists: Upon successfully completing the post-test with a score of 100% and the activity evaluation form, transcript information will be sent to the NABP CPE Monitor Service within 4 weeks.
Joint Accreditation Statement
In support of improving patient care, this activity has been planned and implemented by the Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and The ObG Project. Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is jointly accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), and the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), to provide continuing education for the healthcare team.
Physician Continuing Medical Education
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 0.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Continuing Nursing Education
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Designated for 0.1 contact hours of pharmacotherapy credit for Advance Practice Registered Nurses.
Epidural anesthesia can be associated with maternal hypotension and consequent changes in fetal status
Fetal heart rate (FHR) can be abnormal in 14-30% of cases following an epidural
No set guidelines exist as to necessity of a fluid bolus
Literature exists that low maternal pulse pressure, indicating hypovolemia, may be a helpful guide in determining requirement for fluid bolus
Lappen et al. (Obstetrics & Gynecology, 2017) sought to determine whether increasing the IV fluid bolus volume at the time of epidural placement in women with narrow pulse pressure would reduce adverse fetal cardiac events
Randomized controlled trial (RCT)
Presented for either spontaneous or induction of labor
Narrow pulse pressure (systolic BP–diastolic BP) <45 mm Hg on admission
Eligibility for randomization at epidural request if within 6 hours of admission and FHR category 1
Patients were randomized into 2 arms, both receiving lactated Ringer’s over 30 minutes initiated with patient epidural request and with preparation for or initiation of epidural placement by the anesthesiology team
500-mL (institutional standard) with programmed infusion pump (rate 999 mL/h)
1,500-mL intravenous fluid bolus using a pressure bag over 30 minutes
A reference group with admission pulse pressure ≥50 mm Hg or greater was also evaluated
Category 2 or 3 FHR within 60 minutes after epidural test dose
Composite resuscitative interventions to correct FHR and maternal hypotension
139 women received 500-mL and 137 women received 1,500-mL fluid bolus
138 women were evaluated in the reference group
Demographic, obstetric, and labor characteristics were generally similar between groups
1,500-mL arm had higher rate of admission for induction
Comparing the 1,500-mL group to the 500-mL group, there were
Fewer FHR abnormalities (38.0% vs 51.8%) with relative risk (RR) of 0.73, 95% CI 0.56–0.96; P=.02
Fewer episodes of maternal systolic hypotension (10.2% vs 34.5%) with RR of 0.30, 95% CI 0.17–0.51; P<.001
Fewer composite interventions (18.3% vs 44.2%) with RR of 0.42, 95% CI 0.28–0.62; P<.001
FHR abnormalities remained significantly less frequent in the reference group than among women with a narrow pulse pressure on admission for delivery
An 1,500-mL intravenous fluid bolus in women with a narrow pulse pressure decreases FHR abnormalities, frequency of postepidural hypotension, and need for interventions to reverse maternal hypotension and abnormal FHR patterns
Admission maternal pulse pressure can be used as a surrogate for central volume status and may identify women who would benefit from a larger IV bolus prior to epidural
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Disclosure of Unlabeled Use
This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. The planners of this activity do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.
The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of the planners. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.
Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. The information
presented in this activity is not meant to serve as a guideline for patient management. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications and/or dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities.
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