Nephrolithiasis, or kidney stones, is a common condition which affects up to 8.8% of the U.S. population. The incidence has been increasing over time, especially in the “stone belt” located in the Southeastern and South-Central United States. It is most often characterized by colicky flank pain. Calculi have various compositions including calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, calcium phosphate and, cystine.
Kidney Stones: Treatment and Prevention – American Family Physician (aafp.org)
AUA: Medical Management of Kidney Stones
AUA/Endourology: Surgical Management of Kidney Stones
Clinical Effectiveness Protocols for Imaging in The Management of Ureteral Calculous Disease: AUA Technology Assessment – American Urological Association (auanet.org)
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